Fotografía tradicional y personal

Etiqueta: revelador

Reveladores Foma. Tabla comparativa.

by Domingo A. Siliceo

Hola a todas y todos.

Esta mañana andaba liado en algún asunto de poca importancia cuando me he visto enredado en los reveladores que Foma tiene en catálogo: no me aclaraba con la información que había por aquí y por allá e intentaba no caer en la trampa y la desinformación que la rumorología aporta.

Así que me he puesto a dibujar una tabla en un folio y, al final, tras varios tachones y alguna corrección, me ha quedado el asunto tan apañado que he creído buena idea poner el resultado en limpio y presentar el cuadro ordenado en una imagen como la que sigue:

foma reveladores developers tabla table

 

La ventaja de la mayoría de los reveladores que vende Foma es que, al ser en polvo, cuestan menos y los gastos de envío deberían ser más económicos por el menor peso. En fin, es cuestión de tener otra opción a los reveladores comerciales habituales y poder comparar características con mayor claridad.

Si os interesa, podéis descargaros el PDF original pulsando sobre este enlace.

Gracias por leer.

Lith — algunos reveladores

by Domingo A. Siliceo

Hola de nuevo.

Tal y como anuncié en mi anterior entrada, os voy a poner aquí unas pocas fórmulas para preparar reveladores Lith. No es una lista exhaustiva, pero sí es una lista que puede ayudar a quien busque cómo empezar a preparar revelador tipo Lith para sus primeras copias. Creo que hay unas cuantas buenas soluciones.

Este trabajo de recopilación, como os podréis imaginar al leerlo, no es mío sino de Larry Hamilton quien sin poner ninguna pega me ha permitido copiar el contenido íntegro de su página aquí. Él mismo me ha comentado que dicho contenido permanece inalterable desde 2004.

Y poco más tengo que decir: voy a dejar que sea Larry quien se luzca. Disfrutad y sed muy cuidadosos con la preparación de los químicos.


Lith Developers

On this page are formulae for all of the lith developers I could find. Please note that all chemicals should be mixed in the order given and that proper safety procedures should be followed when mixing the formulae. Goggles, a mask and gloves would be regarded as basic precautions.

Michael Gudzinowicz (bg174@FreeNet.Carleton.CA) rather wisely points out that formaldehyde, which is used in many lith formulae, its polymerized form paraformaldehyde and addition products such as the bisulphites, are carcinogenic and should be treated carefully with very good ventilation – preferably in a fume hood.

He offers the advice that instead of using paraformaldehyde, acetone is used. The monomer molecular weight of paraformaldehyde is 30, and that of acetone is 58.08 with a density of 0.788. He suggests therefore, for each gram of paraformaldehyde, substituting 58/(30 * 0.788) = 2.20 ml of acetone. So for 37.5 grams of paraformaldehyde, you’d use 82.5 ml of acetone. He advocates testing this on scrap film with the addition of more acetone if the lith effect does not occur due to the excess of free sulphite.

I’m not sure what effect this has on lith printing rather than lith developing as I am going to stick with paraformaldehyde with care in its use. I’m offering Mike’s advice here for those who are concerned about the use of known carcinogens.

This page points to the following lith developers:


What Lith Developers do

This information was taken directly from an e-mail from Michael Gudzinowicz. It is the best description I’ve found of what Lith Developers do.

Lith Developers are fairly simple mixtures. Hydroquinone is the developing agent, usually present in a concentration of around 20 grams per litre. The free sulphite level must be very low – less than 2 grams per litre. Since the developer will oxidise quickly, sulphite in the form of an addition product with formaldehyde is frequently used, or formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde or acetone are added to tie up free sulphite. The anti-oxidant properties are retained. The third component is a base, usually carbonate or mixtures of carbonate, hydroxide or borates. The pH is frequently adjusted to a value around 10.

Although lith developers are often thought of as simply high contrast developers, they have a unique property. In the absence of sulphite, the hydroquinone dianon reduces silver and is oxidised to the semiqinone free radical. The semiquinone is a more powerful developing agent than hydroquinone, and it reduces another silver atom and is converted to quinone. Then quinone reacts with hydroquinone to form two semiquinone molecules. They reduce silver, generating two quinones. They react with hydroquinone forming four semiquinone molecules. The rounds of reactions result in an exponential inrease in semiquinone concentration, doubling each time. The addition of sulphite will stop these reactions, since it reacts with the semiquinone and quinone removing the possibility of reaction with hydroquinone to generate more semiquinone.

The semiquinone is generated in the emulsion and remains there with a very short diffusion path. Development starts with grains which have multiple centres. The semiquinone concentration rises as those grains are reduced, and then neighbouring grains are developed which might have just one centre. As the concentration rises a bit more, development spreads explosively (exponential).

What one sees is that development starts slowly in well exposed areas of the film. If a step tablet were used for the exposure, a faint image appears in the well exposed areas. Eventually the developed area reaches a critical density and semiquinone concentration, and then development takes off, and quickly goes to completion in that step. Then as development proceeds, the next step develops fully.

Essentially one has a two phase development. First the formation of a faint image, then rapid completion in areas receiving the most exposure. This results in a film with very little density in areas with little exposure, and an extremely dense image in areas with a bit more exposure. As expected, the contrast increases with development to a miximum after 1 to 3 minutes, and then decreases as the low value faint images are further developed. Unlike developers with moderate sulphite concentrations, development is restricted to the grain and filaments are not formed. If free sulphite is added (20gm/l), filaments are formed and neighbouring grains are rapidly developed. There is no lag phase and significant semiquinone concentrations are not generated. The developer then acts like a typical MQ or PQ high contrast developer.

Having read the material from Richard and Michael about lith developers, I then consulted my copy of «Photographic Facts and Formulas» (reference on my Library Page) and discovered, in addition to two formulae, a note that Hydroquinone deteriorates slowly in air and has good keeping qualities in solution but is very sensitive to cold and should not be used at temperatures below 60 degrees F. It is practically inert at 55 degrees F. I then went to «The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography» (desk edition), Focal Press, London, 1969 and discovered a table comparing lith developers. I’ve modified it slightly and reproduce the modification here. It gives a different version of Kodak D-8 which is a bit inexplicable.


Ansco GAF 79


Ansco 79 is a single solution formula which is recommended for its convenience but which has poor keeping qualities. If you are likely to store your chemicals then GAF 79b (a two solution version of this formula) is recommended. If you wish to use a single solution developer, Ansco 81 is recommended as having excellent keeping qualities.

Water (<32 dec C)
Sodium Sulfite (anh)
Paraformaldehyde
Potassium Metabisulphite
Boric Acid crystals
Hydroquinone
Potassium Bromide
Cold water to make
500 ml
30.0 grams
7.5 grams
2.6 grams
7.5 grams
22.5 grams
1.5 grams
1 litre

This formula should be used full strength. The normal development time for Reprolith film is given as 2 – 3 minutes. The normal development time for Reprolith Orthochromatic Film is 1 – 3 minutes at 20 degrees C.

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Ansco 81


Ansco 81 is a single solution formula which is recommended for its convenience and excellent keeping qualities.

Water (52 deg C)
Hydroquinone
Sodium Sulphite (anh)
Sodium Carbonate (mono)
Citric Acid
Potassium Bromide
Cold water to make
750 ml
35.0 grams
55.0 grams
80.0 grams
5.5 grams
10.0 grams
1 litre

Don’t dilute for use with film. The normal development time is 3 minutes at 20 degrees C.

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GAF 79b Paraformaldehyde Developer

This formula I got from an e-mailed message posted by Richard Knoppow in response to a message on rec-photo.darkroom. Richard indicates that this formula might have originated at AGFA. I’ve found that sometimes this formula is given with Solution B made up to one litre rather than three litres. I’ve both checked with references and tried this one out and am confident with the formula given below. In making it up I had a hard job getting the hydroquinone to go into solution. I’m going to read some more about this. Despite the difficulties with the hydroquinone, I had good results with the formula.

NOTE: The use of Paraformaldehyde in this formula necessitates careful handling and the use of proper protective equipment (gloves, mask and eye protection).

Solution A

Water (approx 52 deg C)
Sodium Sulfite, dessicated
Paraformaldehyde
Potassium Metabisulphite
Cold water
to make

_

750 ml
1.0 grams

30.0 grams

10.5 grams

1 litre

Solution B

Water
Sodium Sulphite (dessicated)
Boric Acid Crystals
Hydroquinone
Potassium Bromide
Water to make

_

750 ml
120.0 grams
30.0 grams
90.0 grams
6.0 grams
3 litres

To Use for Films:

Mix one part Solution A with three parts Solution B.

To Use for Lith Printing:

I’ve tried various dilutions and have discovered that the best effects for lith printing were achieved with the following mix:

  • 300 ml part A
  • 900 ml part B
  • 100 ml of Old Brown
  • 8 litres of water

I had to use a big 16 by 20 tray to cope with this volume of developer. Perhaps because of the volume, I discovered that I was able to get quite a few more prints out of a mix than I’d ever achieved with Kodalith RT. The prints came up faster also which makes it a more productive session. Sometimes waiting for 15 minutes for an image to appear palls a little.

I also found that at lower levels of dilution the tones were more brown than pink on the Renaissance paper I was using.

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Kodak D-85

This version of Kodak D-85 isn’t very stable and I’d advocate using the two solution version provided elsewhere on this page.

Water (125 F)
Sodium Sulfite (anh)
Paraformaldehyde
Sodium Bisulphite
Boric Acid Crystals
Hydroquinone
Potassium Bromide
Cold water to make

500 ml
30.0 grams
7.5 grams
2.2 grams
7.5 grams
22.5 grams
1.6 grams
1 litre

To Use with Films:

Use undiluted with a development time of 1.5 to 2.25 min.

To Use for Lith Printing:

I’m going to experiment with this developer and post my preferred dilutions for lith printing. Until I do, I suggest that you consult Tim Rudman’s book for ideas on diluting it for use in printing

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Kodak D-85 (two solution version)

In the same burst of e-mail messages on rec.photo.darkroom, Michael Gudzinowicz gave a two solution version of Kodak D-85.

Solution A

Water (125 F)
Sodium Sulfite
Boric Acid Crystals
Hydroquinone
Potassium Bromide
Cold water to make

_

500 ml
36.5 grams
9.4 grams
28.0 grams
2.0 grams
1 litre

Solution B

Water (90 F)
Sodium Bisulphite
Sodium
Sulphite
Paraformaldehyde
Water to make

_

500 ml
11.0 grams
1.0 grams
37.5 grams
1 litres

To Use with Films:

Mix 4 parts solution A with 1 part Solution B.

To Use for Lith Printing:

I’m going to experiment with this developer and post my preferred dilutions for lith printing. Until I do, I suggest that you consult Tim Rudman’s book for ideas on diluting it for use in printing

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Wall’s Normal Hydroquinone Developer

Solution A

Water
Sodium Sulfite,
dessicated
Hydroquinone
Cold water to make

_

500 ml
100.0 grams
20.0 grams
1 litre

Solution B

Water
Potassium Carbonate
Water to make

_

500 ml
120.0 grams
1 litres

To Use with Films:

Mix equal parts solution A and Solution B.

To Use for Lith Printing:

I’m going to experiment with this developer and post my preferred dilutions for lith printing. Until I do, I suggest that you consult Tim Rudman’s book for ideas on diluting it for use in printing

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Eastman D-9 Hydroquinone – Caustic

Solution A

Water
Sodium Bisulfite
Hydroquinone
Potassium Bromide
Cold water to make

_

500 ml
22.5 grams
22.5 grams
22.5 grams
1 litre

Solution B

Cold Water
Sodium Hydroxide

_

1 Litre
52.5 grams

Note:
Cold water should always be used when dissolving sodium hydroxide because considerable heat is evolved and if hot water is used the solution will boil violently and may spatter and cause serious burns on the hands or face.

To Use with Films:

Mix equal parts solution A and Solution B. Wall notes that films should be washed thoroughly after development and before fixing to avoid stains.

To Use for Lith Printing:

I’m going to experiment with this developer and post my preferred dilutions for lith printing. Until I do, I suggest that you consult Tim Rudman’s book for ideas on diluting it for use in printing

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Kodak D-8 Lith Developer

Richard Knoppow provided also, this formula which dispenses with paraformaldehyde. Richard’s formula is as follows:

Water (90 degress F)
Sodium Sulfite (anh)
Hydroquinone
Let cool before adding
Sodium Hydroxide
Potassium Bromide
Water to make
750 ml
90.0 grams
45.0 grams

37.5 grams
30.0 grams
1 litre

Richard notes that the solution should be stirred thoroughly before use. He also suggests that a less alkaline version which will give nearly as much contrast can be obtained by reducing the amount of Hydroxide to 28 grams per liter. He also wisely notes that one should be very careful mixing the hydroxide as it produces a lot of heat going into solution and can cause boiling and splattering. Hydroxide should only be added to cold solutions.

To Use with Films:

Mix 2 parts stock solution and 1 part water.

To Use for Lith Printing:

I’m going to experiment with this developer and post my preferred dilutions for lith printing. Until I do, I suggest that you consult Tim Rudman’s book for ideas on diluting it for use in printing

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Ilford ID-13


I’ve not been able to find out much about this developer other than it is for line and screen negatives.

Solution A

Water
Hydroquinone
Potassium Metabisulphite
Potassium Bromide
Cold water to make

_

750 ml
25.0 grams
25.0 grams
25.0 grams
1 litre

Solution B

Cold Water
Sodium Hydroxide

_

1 Litre
50.0 grams

Note:
Cold water should always be used when dissolving sodium hydroxide because considerable heat is evolved and if hot water is used the solution will boil violently and may spatter and cause serious burns on the hands or face.

To Use with Films:

Mix equal parts solution A and Solution B immediately before use. This solution has very poor keeping qualities. With normal exposures development is complete in 2.5 to 3 minutes.

To Use for Lith Printing:

I’m going to experiment with this developer and post my preferred dilutions for lith printing. Until I do, I suggest that you consult Tim Rudman’s book for ideas on diluting it for use in printing

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Packo Lith Developer

Water (<32 dec C)
Sodium Sulfite (anh)
Sodium Formaldehyde bisulphite
Hydroquinone
Sodium Bromide
Sodium Carbonate (mono)
Ascorbic Acid
Cold water to make
500 ml
3.0 grams
25.0 grams
12.0 grams
2.6 grams
23.0 grams
5 grams
1 litre

This formula should be used full strength. The normal development time for film is given as 2 minutes.

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DuPont D-7

Water (<32 dec C)
Sodium Sulfite (anh)
Paraformaldehyde
Sodium Bisulphite
Boric Acid crystals
Hydroquinone
Potassium Bromide
Cold water to make
500 ml
60.0 grams
15.0 grams
5.0 grams
15.0 grams
45.0 grams
3.0 grams
1 litre

This formula should be used diluted 1+1. The normal development time for film is given as 2 minutes.

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Welliver & Krizka Lith Developer


Michael Gudzinowicz provided this formula with the comments that stability has always been a problem with lith developers and most only have a working life of 2 hours or so. Ascorbate extends life by a small amount, but interferes with activity. By using metaborate as the base, the open tray life of this developer has been extended to 8 hours.

Water (<32 dec C)
Hydroquinone
Sodium formaldehyde bisulphite
Sodium Carbonate
Sodium metaborate
Potassium Bromide
Cold water to make
500 ml
15.0 grams
50.0 grams
20.0 grams
20.0 grams
1.5 grams
1 litre

I’ve got no information about using this developer

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Acetonitrile Antioxidant Developer


Another approach to increasing the storage life of a lith developer has been to use acetonitrile as an antioxidant.

Water (<32 dec C)
Sodium carbonate (mono)
Paraformaldehyde sodium bisulphite
Potassium Bromide
Hydroquinone
Sodium Sulphite
Acetonitrile
Cold water to make
500 ml
50.0 grams
45.0 grams
2.0 grams
18.0 grams
2.0 grams
10.0 grams
1 litre

I’ve no information about dilution but that film should be developed for 2.75 minutes at 20 degrees C.

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Gracias por leer.

Reveladores a granel

by Domingo A. Siliceo

El mundo está lleno de reveladores. En serio. Si alguna vez pensaste que más allá de tu botella de HC-110 o Rodinal sólo existía el salvaje D-76… estabas en un gran error.

Pero no sientas apuro: no es un error grave. De hecho, y según cómo se mire, no conviene hacerse la pregunta de «con qué más podrías revelar tu negativo» porque la respuesta puede ser el inicio de una tortuosa, larga y a menudo infructuosa búsqueda casi sin fin que te va a llevar a descubrir una verdad peligrosa para la consecución de resultados predecibles: el mundo está lleno de reveladores.

La historia nos suele contar que en un primer momento todos hemos confiado en los reveladores comerciales: HC-110, Rodinal, D-76, Xtol o Tmax developer, por citar los quizás más nombrados. Luego hemos pensado que algún revelador de autor, como los de Gago o los de Moersch, los de Barry Thornton o de Willi Beutler, podría dar un toque único y distinto a nuestras fotografías, algo que permitiera diferenciarnos de los demás. Siempre curiosos, aún hemos ido un paso más allá y hemos buscado fórmulas de reveladores antiguos, medio olvidados, nos hemos sentido casi alquimistas y nos hemos convencido que detrás de las fenomenales imágenes de Edward Weston o de William Mortensen el revelador ha jugado un papel insustituible y definitivo.

En mi opinión, buscar un revelador que se ajuste a nuestra manera de entender las imágenes es algo bueno para nuestro crecimiento como artesanos o como artistas. Buscar, encontrar y trabajar y comprender ese revelador ayudará a que nuestras fotografías puedan tener un sello especial que las diferencie de muchas otras fotografías.

Pero no os ceguéis pensando que el revelador va a compensar un fallo vuestro a la hora de exponer, no. El revelador puede jugar muy bien su limitado papel, pero la magia la crea el fotógrafo mezclando en el matraz que es el negativo los factores que determinan un buen cliché, y si la relación entre estos factores no está equilibrada el peor de ellos determinará la calidad final.

Para terminar —y por si finalmente no me hacéis caso y decidís probar—, os dejo el trabajo de Paul Fitzerald al recopilar unas pocas fórmulas de reveladores hoy en desuso. Este trabajo puede asimilar un caserón decrépito y abandonado, lleno de muebles de olor denso, poca y turbia luz, sonido seco y telas blancas y polvorientas de misteriosas formas. Pero los fantasmas de este caserón están muy vivos…

 
 

These formulas are given for ‘Historical reference ONLY’. Some of the formulas contain chemicals that are noxious, toxic, or just plain dangerous to handle. KNOW what you are doing first or learn about chemical handling BEFORE you start using these.

Misc. Film Developers
Burki’s Pyro

Standard Glycin

SD-19 Hot Shot DeFero’s DK-20X
Sease #3 Fine Grain Edwal #12
Defender ND-3 777
Defender D-6 King’s All-in-One
Metol/Pyro Staining
Kodak Film Developers
D-1 pyro

SD-1 Pyro

D-7 pyro

D-8 high

D-11 high

DK-15 tropical

D-19 high

DK-20

D-23 soft

D-25 fine

D-32 warm-tone

DK-50

D-51 Amidol

DK-60a

D-61

D-72

D-76

D-82 extreme

D-84 pyro

D-85 lith

D-89 DK-93
D-96
Agfa Film Developers
Ansco 12 Fine grain
Agfa17 borax

Agfa17M metaborate

Agfa20 Agfa22
Agfa30 X-ray Agfa40
Agfa42 Agfa45 Pyro
Agfa47 Agfa48M metaborate
Agfa61 Agfa64 tropical
Agfa70 high Agfa72 glycin
Agfa73 extreme Agfa79 lith
Agfa81 lith Agfa90 high

index


Burki’s Pyro Developer

Reported to be a fast acting, very fine grain, compensating developer.
A fast acting, COMPENSATING pyro developer, interesting.

Stock Solution A
Pyro 60g
Potassium metabisulfite 60g
Water 1.0L
Stock Solution B
Trisodium Phosphate 100g
Water 3.0L

Mix 1 part A with 9 parts B
6 min.@65°F (18°C). Use one-shot.
((the T.S.P. I found at the hardware stores is mixed with ‘Sodium Meta-silicate’, I have no idea if this will work out.))


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Standard Glycin Developer

Water (125°F) 750ml
Sodium Sulfite 125g
Glycin 50g
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 125g
Cold water to make 1.0L

Suggested: tray=1 part stock – 4 parts water = 5 -10 min @68°F; tank=1 part stock – 15 parts water = 20 – 25 min @68°


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Paraphenylene Fine Grain

777 Defender ND-3 Edwal #12 Sease #3
Water (125°F) 750ml 750ml 750ml 750ml
Metol 7.0g 6.0g
Sodium sulfite 70.0g 90.0g 90.0g 90.0g
Paraphenylene-diamine 7.0g 10.0g 10.0g 10.0g
Glycin 7.0g 2.0g 5.0g 6.0g
Water to make 1.0L 1.0L 1.0L 1.0L

Suggested 12 to 25 min.@68°F
“Films to be developed in this solution should be given twice the exposure usually given when alkali-containing developers are to be used. This developer keeps well.”
“This formula has been found to give excellent results with all makes of film. Grainless enlargements up to 20 diameters are consistently obtained from negatives developed in it and in the hands of a skilled photographer, good enlargements up to 50 diameters are possible.”

((Greatest thing since sliced bread, too bad it’s TOXIC, use at your own risk.))


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Defender D-6

Water (125°F) 96 oz.
Metol 115 grains
Sodium sulfite 13 oz.
Hydroquinone 300 grains
Borax(crystals) 115 grains
Water to make 1 gal

Suggested: Time / temp same as D-76, looks to be the same formula.


index


King’s All-in-One

Water 1.0L
Metol 1.0g
Sodium Sulfite 40.0g
Hydroquinone 5.0g
Sodium Carbonate 30.0g
Potassium Bromide 2.0g
Potassium Iodide 2.0g
Hypo 13.0g

This is a developer/fixer in one solution. The pH should be 8.5; the ratio of potassium iodide to hypo is critical; it does not reach full emulsion speed. No time / temp is given, I guess 15 min.@68°F is a start. This was patented in 1946 (U.S.P. 2,397,006)


index


Metol/Pyro Staining Developer

Part A
Metol 3.9g
Potassium Metabisulfite 4.4g
Pyro 4.4g
Potassium Bromide 1.6g
Water to make 1.0L
Part B
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 108g
Water to make 1.0L

Mix 1 part A with 1 part B, use one-shot.
Suggested : 6 min.@68°F.


index


A.B.C. Pyro Kodak D-1

Stock Solution A
Sodium bisulfite 9.8g
Pyro 60.0g
Potassium Bromide 2g
Water to make 1.0L
Stock Solution B
Water 1.0L
Sodium sulfite 105g
Stock Solution C
Water 1.oL
Sodium Carbonate 75g

This is to be used ‘one-shot’ and combined just before use.
To use, mix 1 part A, B, C, with 7 parts water.
Suggested 5-7 min @65°


index


Kodak Pyro-Stain Developer SD-1

Water (125°F) 500ml
Sodium Sulfite 1.4g
Pyro 2.8
Sodium Carbonate 5.3
Water to make 1.0L

Suggested : 6 min. @68°F in shallow tray, water rinse, and fix in plain hypo.


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(Metol) Elon – Pyro Kodak Developer D-7

((It appears that D-7 was THE choice for Tri-X, full speed, full range, and fine grain.))

Stock Solution A
Water (125°F) 500ml
Elon (metol) 7.5.g
Sodium Bisulfite 7.5g
Pyro 30.0g
Potassium Bromide 4.2g
Water to make 1.0L
Stock Solution B
Water 1.0L
Sodium Sulfite 150.0g
Stock Solution C
Water 1.0L
Sodium Carbonate 75.0g

Dissolve in order given.

Suggested:
Tray = 1 part A, B, C & 8 parts water
7 min. @ 68°F
Tank = 1 part A, B, C & 13 parts water
10 min. @ 68°F


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Very High Contrast Developer Kodak D-8

Water (90°F) 750ml
Sodium Sulfite 90.0g
Hydroquinone 45.0g
Sodium Hydroxide 37.5g
Potassium Bromide 30.0g
Water to make 1.0L

Dissolve in order given. Stir thoroughly before use.

Suggested: 2 parts stock solution – 1 part water 2 min. @68°F

“For general use, a developer which is slightly less alkaline and gives almost as much density can be obtained by using 410 grains of sodium hydroxide per 32oz of stock solution (28g per liter) instead of the quantity given in this formula.”


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High Contrast Developer Kodak D-11

Water (125°F) 500ml
Metol 1.0g
Sodium sulfite 75g
Hydroquinone 9g
Sodium Carbonate 25g
Potassium Bromide 5.0g
Cold water to make 1.0L

Dissolve chemicals in order given.
Use full strength for high contrast, dilute 1 – 1 for continuous tone copies.
Suggested 5 min @68°F


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Tropical Developer DK-15

Water (125°F) 750ml
Elon (metol) 5.7g
Sodium Sulfite 90.0g
Kodalk 22.5g
Potassium Bromide 1.9g
Sodium Sulfate 45.0g
Cold water to make 1.0L

Dissolve in order given. Use full strength.

Suggested:
10 min.@68°F
2 – 3 min.@90°F

Under 75° you can omit the sulfate to speed up development.
6 min.@68°F

“A developer which gives less contrast than Kodak DK-15 can be obtained by reducing the quantity of Kodalk in DK-15 to 73 grains per 32oz of developer (5g per liter). Development times are the same.”


index


High Contrast Kodak D-19

Water(125°F) 500ml
Elon(metol) 2.2g
Sodium Sulfite 96.0g
Hydroquinone 8.8g
Sodium Carbonate 48.0g
Potassium Bromide 5.0g
Cold water to make 1.0L

Dissolve in order given.
Suggested : 5 min.@68°F


Kodak SD-19-A additive

((This would have been for ‘Johnny on the spot’,’F/8 and be there’ press photographers. They expected a 4X speed increase with the additive.))

0.2% solution of
(6-nitro-benzimidazole nitrate) 20.0g
hydrazine dihydrochloride 1.6g
Water to make 1.0L

Dissolve in order given.
To use, add 1oz SD-19-A to 32oz of D-19.

“The best speed increase is obtained by developing for the time required to give a fog value around 0.40.” Between 12 – 20 min.@68°F

To prepare a 0.2% solution of 6-nitro-benzimidazole nitrate, dissolve 30gr in 32oz (2g -1.0L) of hot distilled water.”

‘6-nitro-benzimidazole nitrate’ was available as ‘Kodak Anti-Fog #2’
‘hydrazine dihydrochloride’ was available as ‘Eastman Organic Chemical #1117’


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Kodak Developer DK-20

((This appears to be THE choice for Plus-X and SuperXX, as universal as D-76 with finer grain. Lowering the borax amount in DeFero’s formula would extend the development time
Try 10 min.@68°F to start. Will need to try this one out!!!))

DeFero’s DK-20x DK-20 DK-20R
Water (125°F) 750ml 750ml 750ml
Elon (Metol) 5.0g 5.0g 7.5g
Sodium Sulfite 100.0g 100.0g 100.0g
Borax 0.67g
Kodalk 2.0g 20.0
Sodium Thiocyanate 1.0g 1.0g 5.0g
Potassium Bromide 0.5g 0.5g 1.0
Cold water to make 1.0L 1.0L 1.0L

Dissolve in order given.
Suggested: Same time and temp. as D-76.
Replenish at a rate of 3/4oz per roll developed (80 Sq. In.).

“De Fero has reported that in the Kodak DK-20 formula, the substitution of the Kodalk by 1/3 of it’s weight of borax greatly improves the fine grain and keeping properties of the solution.”

“If a two-bath formula for divided development is desired, the solution is made up as above but omitting the borax. The film is treated 4 min. in this bath, then, without intermediate washing, it is held 4 – 6 min. in a solution of 5 grams of borax in 1,000cc of water. Divided development of this kind has the advantage that the developer does not become exhausted nearly as rapidly as the single solution types, assuming that the alkaline second bath is renewed frequently.”


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Low Contrast Developer Kodak D-23
Fine Grain Developer Kodak DK-25

D-23 DK-25 DK-25R
Water (125°F) 750ml 750ml 750ml
Elon (metol) 7.5g 7.5g 10.0g
Sodium Sulfite 100.0g 100.0g 100.0g
Sodium Bisulfite(Kodalk)

15.0g 20.0g
Cold water to make 1.0L 1.0L 1.0L

Dissolve in order given.
Suggested-23 15 – 19 min.@68°F
SuggestedK-25 35 min.@68°F }}-{{ 18 min.@77°F
Replenish at 1oz. per roll for the first 50 rolls; 3/4oz. per roll for the second 50 rolls then discard and replace.


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Warm-Tone Lantern Slides Kodak D-32

Stock Solution A
Water (125°F) 500ml
Sodium Sulfite 6.3g
Hydroquinone 7.0g
Potassium Bromide 3.5g
Citric Acid 0.7g
Cold water to make 1.0L
Stock Solution B
Cold water 1.0L
Sodium Carbonate 30.0g
Sodium Hydroxide 4.2g

Dissolve in order given.

To use: 1 part A – 1 part B : 5 min.@68°F
For still warmer tone use 1 part A – 2 parts B
((This looks like it would work as a warm-tone paper developer))


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Commercial Developer Kodak DK – 50

DK-50 DK-50R
Water (125°) 500ml 750ml
Elon (metol) 2.5g 5.0g
Sodium Sulfite 30.0g 30.0g
Hydroquinone 2.5g 10.0g
Kodalk 10.0g 40.0g
Potassium Bromide 0.5g
Water to make 1.0L 1.0L

Dissolve in order given.

Suggested: 4 – 6 min.@68°F in trays
8 min.@68°F in tanks
8 min.@68°F in tanks at 1 -1 for portraits
Replenish at a rate of 3/4oz per roll developed (80 Sq. In.).


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Kodak Amidol Developer D-51

Water (125°) 750ml
Sodium Sulfite 24.0g
Cold water to make 1.0L
Amidol
(Diaminophenol hydrochloride) 7.5

No time/temp suggestion was made, this was part of a bleach & redevelopment stain removal process. It is a non-staining developer.


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Commercial Developer Kodak DK – 60a

DK-60a DK-60TR
Water (125°F) 750ml 750ml
Elon (metol) 2.5g 5.0g
Sodium Sulfite 50.0g 50.0g
Hydroquinone 2.5g 10.0g
Kodalk 20.0g 40.0g
Potassium Bromide 0.5g
Water to make 1.0L 1.0L

Dissolve in order given.
Suggested: deep tank = 7 min.@68°F
Replenish at 3/4oz. per roll developed (80sq. In.) approx. 8 gal per 1000 rolls.


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Developer Kodak D-61A

D-61A D-61R
Solution A
Water (125°F) 500ml 3.0L
Elon (metol) 3.1g 5.0g
Sodium Sulfite 90.0g 180.0g
Sodium Bisulfite 2.1g 3.8g
Hydroquinone 5.9g 11.9g
Sodium Carbonate 11.5g
Potassium Bromide 1.7g 3.1g
Cold water to make 1.0L 6.0L
Solution B
Sodium Carbonate 240.0g
Water to make 2.0L

Dissolve in order given.
tray: mix 1 – 1 with water; 6 min. @68°F
tank: mix 1 – 3 with water; 12 min.@68°F

Replenisher = mix 3 parts A and 1 part B and add as needed. Do not mix until ready to use.


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Paper, Film & Plate Developer Kodak D-72

Water (125°F) 500ml
Elon (metol) 3.1g
Sodium Sulfite 45.0g
Hydroquinone 12.0g
Sodium Carbonate 67.5g
Potassium Bromide 1.9g
Cold water to make 1.0L

Dissolve in order given.
See materials for dilution and times.


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Normal Contrast Developer Kodak D-76

D-76 D-76R D-76b D-76d D-76dr D-76h D-76x D-103
Water (125°F) 750ml 750ml 750ml 750ml 750ml 750ml 750ml 750ml
Metol 2.0g 3.0g 2.75g 2.0g 2.2g 2.5g 2.0g 2.0g
Hydroquinone 5.0g 7.5g 2.75g 5.0g 5.4g 5.0 5.0g
Sodium Sulfite 100g 100g 100g 100g 100g 100g 100g 100g
Borax 2.0g 20.0g 2.5g 8.0g 10.0g 2.0g 2.0g 1.0g
Boric acid 8.0g 6.7g 15.0g 15.0g
Potassium Bromide 0.125g
Water to make 1.0L 1.0L 1.0L 1.0L 1.0L 1.0L 1.0L 1.0L

Dissolve in order given.
See materials for dilution and times.
D-76 is the original, D-76R is the replenisher, D-76 b,d,h,x are buffered versions.D-76dr is the replenisher for D-76d.
((You can also add 0.5g potassium bromide to reduce base fog and improve shadow detail.))


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Extreme Underexposure Developer Kodak D-82

Water (125°F) 750ml
Wood Alcohol 48.0ml
Elon (metol) 14.0g
Sodium Sulfite 52.5g
Hydroquinone 14.0g
Sodium Hydroxide 8.8g
Potassium Bromide 8.8g
Cold water to make 1.0L

Dissolve in order given.

Suggested: 5 min. @68°F

“The prepared developer does not kept more than a few days in a full stopped bottle or about 2 hours in an open tray.”


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Non-Staining Pyro Developer Kodak D-84

Stock Solution A
Water 750ml
Sodium sulfite 180g
Pyro 30g
Water to make 1.0L
Stock Solution B
Sodium Carbonate 120g
Potassium Bromide 3.8g
Water to make 1.0L

Dissolve chemicals in order given.
To use mix 1 part A, 1 part B, and 4 parts water.
Suggested 5-6 min @ 65°F.


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Kodalith films, plates and paper Kodak D-85

Water (90°F) 500ml
Sodium Sulfite 30.0g
Paraformaldehyde 7.5g
Sodium Bisulfite 2.2g
Boric acid crystals 7.5g
Hydroquinone 22.5g
Potassium Bromide 1.6g
Cold water to make 1.0L

Use crystalline boric acid, powdered is NOT suggested.

“Mixing directions:
Use a 1 gallon narrow mouthed bottle for mixing the developer. First check the volume of the bottle and mark it to indicate the exact level of 1 gallon of solution. Fill the bottle half full of water at about 90°F and dissolve the chemicals in the order given. After adding each chemical, place the stopper in the bottle so that only a small quantity of air is present during agitation. When all the chemicals have been dissolved, add cold water until the solution comes up to the 1 gallon mark. Insert the stopper tightly to exclude as much air as possible. Allow the developer to stand about 2 hours after mixing. Cool to 68°F before use. If only a portion of the contents of the bottle is used at one time, it is suggested that the balance be saved by filling a bottle of smaller size which should then be stopped tightly.”

((Try Agfa 81 Lith developer.))


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Kodak D-89

Metol 3.0g
Sodium Sulfite 100.0g
Borax 5.0g
Potassium Bromide 0.5g
Water to make 1.0L

((Found and copied from web, no time/temp given. Looks much like DK-25 fine grain.))


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Kodak “Kodelon” DK-93

Water(125°F) 500ml
Kodelon 5.0g
Sodium Sulfite 30.0g
Hydroquinone 2.5g
Kodalk 20.0g
Potassium Bromide 0.5g
Water to make 1.0L

Suggested:
film: 9 min. @68*F
plates: 6 min. @68*F
paper: 2 min. @ 68*F

“For warm tone papers, use without dilution and develop for 2 min.@68°F. For colder tones, double the quantity of Kodalk; use without dilution and develop 1 to 2 min.@68°F. In either case, the tones given with this developer are slightly warmer than the normal tones given with Kodak developers D-52 and D-72.

“The use of Kodak DK-93 is especially recommended for those persons subject to trouble from skin irritation.”


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Kodak D-96

D-96 D-96R
Metol 1.5g 2.0g
Sodium Sulfite 75.0g 80.0g
Hydroquinone 1.5g 2.0g
Borax 4.5g 5.0g
Potassium bromide 0.4g
Water to make 1.0L 1.0L

((Found and copied from web, no time/temp given. Looks almost like DK-50, DK-60. Will need longer time then D-76. Will need to try this one out!!!))


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Ansco 12 Fine grain

Water(125°F) 750ml
Metol 8.0g
Sodium sulfite 125.0g
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 5.75g
Potassium Bromide 2.5g
Water to make 1.0L

Suggested: 8 to 12 min.@65°F


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Agfa 17 Fine grain borax

Agfa 17 Agfa 17A
Water(125°F) 750ml 750ml
Metol 1.5g 2.2g
Sodium Sulfite 80.0g 80.0g
Hydroquinone 3.0g 4.5g
Borax 3.0g 18.0g
Potassium Bromide 0.5g
Water to make 1.0L 1.0L

Suggested: 10 -15 min.@68°F

Add 1/2 to 3/4 oz. replenisher per roll, maintain original volume by discarding used developer. No change in time / temp.


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Agfa 17M Fine Grain Metaborate

Agfa 17M Agfa 17MR
Water(125°F) 750ml 750ml
Metol 1.5g 2.2g
Sodium Sulfite 80.0g 80.0g
Hydroquinone 3.0g 4.5g
Sodium Metaborate 2.0g 8.0g
Potassium Bromide 0.5g
Water to make 1.0L 1.0L

Suggested: 10 -15 min.@68°F

Add 1/2 to 3/4 oz. replenisher per roll, maintain original volume by discarding used developer. No change in time / temp.


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Agfa 20 M-Q Positive

Water(125°F) 750ml
Metol 2.0g
Sodium Sulfite 25.0g
Hydroquinone 4.0g
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 18.5g
Potassium Bromide 2.0g
Water to make 1.0L

Suggested: 3 to 4 min.@68°F


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Agfa 22 M-Q High Contrast Positive

Water(125°F) 750ml
Metol 0.8g
Sodium Sulfite 40.0g
Hydroquinone 8.0g
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 50.0g
Potassium bromide 5.0g
Water to make 1.0L

Suggested: 5 to 8 min.@68°F


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Agfa 30 X-Ray

Water(125°F) 750ml
Metol 3.5g
Sodium Sulfite 60.0g
Hydroquinone 9.0g
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 40.0g
Potassium bromide 2.0g
Water to make 1.0L

Suggested: 4 to 15 min.@68°F


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Agfa 40 M-Q tray

Water(125°F) 900ml
Metol 4.5g
Sodium Sulfite 54.0g
Hydroquinone 7.5g
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 54.0g
Potassium bromide 3.0g
Water to make 1.0L

Suggested: dilute 1 part agfa 40 to 2 parts water.
4 to 5 min.@68°F

“This is a brilliant Metol-Hydroquinone tray developer for roll, pack and sheet film.”


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Agfa 42 M-Q Tank

Water(125°F) 750ml
Metol 0.8g
Sodium Sulfite 45.0g
Hydroquinone 1.2g
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 8.0g
Potassium Metabisulfite 4.0g
Potassium bromide 1.5g
Water to make 1.0L

Suggested: 15 to 20 min.@68°F

“This is a soft-working tank formula recommended for pack, roll and portrait films.”


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Agfa 45 pyro

Solution 1
Sodium Bisulfphite 9.8g
Pyro 60.0g
Potassium Bromide 1.1g
water to make 1.0L
Solution 2
Sodium sulfite 105.0g
water to make 1.0L
Solution 3
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 85.0g
Water to make 1.0L

Suggested:
Tray: 1 part each 1,2,3 and 7 parts water; 6 to 8 min.@68&deg;F
Tank: 1 part each 1,2,3 and 11 parts water; 9 to 12 min.@68&deg;F

“Solutions will keep well when stored separately but final developer
should be used immediately after mixing.”


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Agfa 47 M-Q Developer

Agfa 47 Agfa 47A
Water(125&deg;F) 750ml 750ml
Metol 1.5g 3.0g
Sodium sulfite 45g 45g
Sodium Bisulfite 1.0g 2.0g
Hydroquinone 3.0g 6.0g
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 6.0g 12.0g
Potassium Bromide 0.8g
Water to make 1.0L 1.0L

Suggested: full strength 5-7 min @ 65&deg;F
1 – 1 = 12 – 16 min @ 65&deg;F

“This is a long-life, clean-working formula which will give excellent
results as a standard film developer for either tray or tank
development.”

Suggested: add 1/2 to 3/4 oz. replenisher per roll, maintain original
volume by discarding used developer. No change in time / temp.


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Agfa 48M Metaborate Developer

Agfa 48M Agfa 48MR
Water(125&deg;F) 750ml 750ml
Metol 2.0g 6.3g
Sodium sulfite 40.0g 30.0g
Hydroquinone 1.5g 10.0g
Sodium Metaborate 10.0 40.0
Potassium Bromide 0.5g
Water to make 1.0L 1.0L

Suggested:
Tank: 5 to 7 min.@68&deg;F
Tray: 4 to 6 min