El mundo está lleno de reveladores. En serio. Si alguna vez pensaste que más allá de tu botella de HC110 o Rodinal sólo existía el salvaje D76… estabas en un gran error.
Pero no sientas apuro: no es un error grave. De hecho, y según cómo se mire, no conviene hacerse la pregunta de «con qué más podrías revelar tu negativo» porque la respuesta puede ser el inicio de una tortuosa, larga y a menudo infructuosa búsqueda casi sin fin que te va a llevar a descubrir una verdad peligrosa para la consecución de resultados predecibles: el mundo está lleno de reveladores.
La historia nos suele contar que en un primer momento todos hemos confiado en los reveladores comerciales: HC110, Rodinal, D76, Xtol o Tmax developer, por citar los quizás más nombrados. Luego hemos pensado que algún revelador de autor, como los de Gago o los de Moersch, los de Barry Thornton o de Willi Beutler, podría dar un toque único y distinto a nuestras fotografías, algo que permitiera diferenciarnos de los demás. Siempre curiosos, aún hemos ido un paso más allá y hemos buscado fórmulas de reveladores antiguos, medio olvidados, nos hemos sentido casi alquimistas y nos hemos convencido que detrás de las fenomenales imágenes de Edward Weston o de William Mortensen el revelador ha jugado un papel insustituible y definitivo.
En mi opinión, buscar un revelador que se ajuste a nuestra manera de entender las imágenes es algo bueno para nuestro crecimiento como artesanos o como artistas. Buscar, encontrar y trabajar y comprender ese revelador ayudará a que nuestras fotografías puedan tener un sello especial que las diferencie de muchas otras fotografías.
Pero no os ceguéis pensando que el revelador va a compensar un fallo vuestro a la hora de exponer, no. El revelador puede jugar muy bien su limitado papel, pero la magia la crea el fotógrafo mezclando en el matraz que es el negativo los factores que determinan un buen cliché, y si la relación entre estos factores no está equilibrada el peor de ellos determinará la calidad final.
Para terminar —y por si finalmente no me hacéis caso y decidís probar—, os dejo el trabajo de Paul Fitzerald al recopilar unas pocas fórmulas de reveladores hoy en desuso. Este trabajo puede asimilar un caserón decrépito y abandonado, lleno de muebles de olor denso, poca y turbia luz, sonido seco y telas blancas y polvorientas de misteriosas formas. Pero los fantasmas de este caserón están muy vivos…
These formulas are given for ‘Historical reference ONLY’. Some of the formulas contain chemicals that are noxious, toxic, or just plain dangerous to handle. KNOW what you are doing first or learn about chemical handling BEFORE you start using these.

index
Burki’s Pyro Developer
Reported to be a fast acting, very fine grain, compensating developer.
A fast acting, COMPENSATING pyro developer, interesting.
Stock Solution A 
Pyro 
60g 
Potassium metabisulfite 
60g 
Water 
1.0L 


Stock Solution B 
Trisodium Phosphate 
100g 
Water 
3.0L 
Mix 1 part A with 9 parts B
6 min.@65°F (18°C). Use oneshot.
((the T.S.P. I found at the hardware stores is mixed with ‘Sodium Metasilicate’, I have no idea if this will work out.))
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Standard Glycin Developer
Water (125°F) 
750ml 
Sodium Sulfite 
125g 
Glycin 
50g 
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 
125g 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 
Suggested: tray=1 part stock – 4 parts water = 5 10 min @68°F; tank=1 part stock – 15 parts water = 20 – 25 min @68°
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Paraphenylene Fine Grain

777 
Defender ND3 
Edwal #12 
Sease #3 
Water (125°F) 
750ml 
750ml 
750ml 
750ml 
Metol 
7.0g 

6.0g 

Sodium sulfite 
70.0g 
90.0g 
90.0g 
90.0g 
Paraphenylenediamine 
7.0g 
10.0g 
10.0g 
10.0g 
Glycin 
7.0g 
2.0g 
5.0g 
6.0g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
1.0L 
1.0L 
1.0L 
Suggested 12 to 25 min.@68°F
“Films to be developed in this solution should be given twice the exposure usually given when alkalicontaining developers are to be used. This developer keeps well.”
“This formula has been found to give excellent results with all makes of film. Grainless enlargements up to 20 diameters are consistently obtained from negatives developed in it and in the hands of a skilled photographer, good enlargements up to 50 diameters are possible.”
((Greatest thing since sliced bread, too bad it’s TOXIC, use at your own risk.))
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Water (125Â°F) 
96 oz. 
Metol 
115 grains 
Sodium sulfite 
13 oz. 
Hydroquinone 
300 grains 
Borax(crystals) 
115 grains 
Water to make 
1 gal 
Suggested: Time / temp same as D76, looks to be the same formula.
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Water 
1.0L 
Metol 
1.0g 
Sodium Sulfite 
40.0g 
Hydroquinone 
5.0g 
Sodium Carbonate 
30.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
2.0g 
Potassium Iodide 
2.0g 
Hypo 
13.0g 
This is a developer/fixer in one solution. The pH should be 8.5; the ratio of potassium iodide to hypo is critical; it does not reach full emulsion speed. No time / temp is given, I guess 15 min.@68Â°F is a start. This was patented in 1946 (U.S.P. 2,397,006)
index
Part A 
Metol 
3.9g 
Potassium Metabisulfite 
4.4g 
Pyro 
4.4g 
Potassium Bromide 
1.6g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Part B 
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 
108g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Mix 1 part A with 1 part B, use oneshot.
Suggested : 6 min.@68Â°F.
index
Stock Solution A 
Sodium bisulfite 
9.8g 
Pyro 
60.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
2g 
Water to make 
1.0L 


Stock Solution B 
Water 
1.0L 
Sodium sulfite 
105g 


Stock Solution C 
Water 
1.oL 
Sodium Carbonate 
75g 
This is to be used ‘oneshot’ and combined just before use.
To use, mix 1 part A, B, C, with 7 parts water.
Suggested 57 min @65Â°
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Water (125Â°F) 
500ml 
Sodium Sulfite 
1.4g 
Pyro 
2.8 
Sodium Carbonate 
5.3 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Suggested : 6 min. @68Â°F in shallow tray, water rinse, and fix in plain hypo.
index
((It appears that D7 was THE choice for TriX, full speed, full range, and fine grain.))
Stock Solution A 
Water (125Â°F) 
500ml 
Elon (metol) 
7.5.g 
Sodium Bisulfite 
7.5g 
Pyro 
30.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
4.2g 
Water to make 
1.0L 


Stock Solution B 
Water 
1.0L 
Sodium Sulfite 
150.0g 


Stock Solution C 
Water 
1.0L 
Sodium Carbonate 
75.0g 
Dissolve in order given.
Suggested:
Tray = 1 part A, B, C & 8 parts water
7 min. @ 68Â°F
Tank = 1 part A, B, C & 13 parts water
10 min. @ 68Â°F
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Water (90Â°F) 
750ml 
Sodium Sulfite 
90.0g 
Hydroquinone 
45.0g 
Sodium Hydroxide 
37.5g 
Potassium Bromide 
30.0g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Dissolve in order given. Stir thoroughly before use.
Suggested: 2 parts stock solution – 1 part water 2 min. @68Â°F
“For general use, a developer which is slightly less alkaline and gives almost as much density can be obtained by using 410 grains of sodium hydroxide per 32oz of stock solution (28g per liter) instead of the quantity given in this formula.”
index
Water (125Â°F) 
500ml 
Metol 
1.0g 
Sodium sulfite 
75g 
Hydroquinone 
9g 
Sodium Carbonate 
25g 
Potassium Bromide 
5.0g 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 
Dissolve chemicals in order given.
Use full strength for high contrast, dilute 1 – 1 for continuous tone copies.
Suggested 5 min @68Â°F
index
Water (125Â°F) 
750ml 
Elon (metol) 
5.7g 
Sodium Sulfite 
90.0g 
Kodalk 
22.5g 
Potassium Bromide 
1.9g 
Sodium Sulfate 
45.0g 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 
Dissolve in order given. Use full strength.
Suggested:
10 min.@68Â°F
2 – 3 min.@90Â°F
Under 75Â° you can omit the sulfate to speed up development.
6 min.@68Â°F
“A developer which gives less contrast than Kodak DK15 can be obtained by reducing the quantity of Kodalk in DK15 to 73 grains per 32oz of developer (5g per liter). Development times are the same.”
index
Water(125Â°F) 
500ml 
Elon(metol) 
2.2g 
Sodium Sulfite 
96.0g 
Hydroquinone 
8.8g 
Sodium Carbonate 
48.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
5.0g 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 
Dissolve in order given.
Suggested : 5 min.@68Â°F
((This would have been for ‘Johnny on the spot’,’F/8 and be there’ press photographers. They expected a 4X speed increase with the additive.))
0.2% solution of 

(6nitrobenzimidazole nitrate) 
20.0g 
hydrazine dihydrochloride 
1.6g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Dissolve in order given.
To use, add 1oz SD19A to 32oz of D19.
“The best speed increase is obtained by developing for the time required to give a fog value around 0.40.” Between 12 – 20 min.@68Â°F
To prepare a 0.2% solution of 6nitrobenzimidazole nitrate, dissolve 30gr in 32oz (2g 1.0L) of hot distilled water.”
‘6nitrobenzimidazole nitrate’ was available as ‘Kodak AntiFog #2’
‘hydrazine dihydrochloride’ was available as ‘Eastman Organic Chemical #1117’
index
((This appears to be THE choice for PlusX and SuperXX, as universal as D76 with finer grain. Lowering the borax amount in DeFero’s formula would extend the development time
Try 10 min.@68Â°F to start. Will need to try this one out!!!))

DeFero’s DK20x 
DK20 
DK20R 
Water (125Â°F) 
750ml 
750ml 
750ml 
Elon (Metol) 
5.0g 
5.0g 
7.5g 
Sodium Sulfite 
100.0g 
100.0g 
100.0g 
Borax 
0.67g 


Kodalk 

2.0g 
20.0 
Sodium Thiocyanate 
1.0g 
1.0g 
5.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
0.5g 
0.5g 
1.0 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 
1.0L 
1.0L 
Dissolve in order given.
Suggested: Same time and temp. as D76.
Replenish at a rate of 3/4oz per roll developed (80 Sq. In.).
“De Fero has reported that in the Kodak DK20 formula, the substitution of the Kodalk by 1/3 of it’s weight of borax greatly improves the fine grain and keeping properties of the solution.”
“If a twobath formula for divided development is desired, the solution is made up as above but omitting the borax. The film is treated 4 min. in this bath, then, without intermediate washing, it is held 4 – 6 min. in a solution of 5 grams of borax in 1,000cc of water. Divided development of this kind has the advantage that the developer does not become exhausted nearly as rapidly as the single solution types, assuming that the alkaline second bath is renewed frequently.”
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D23 
DK25 
DK25R 
Water (125Â°F) 
750ml 
750ml 
750ml 
Elon (metol) 
7.5g 
7.5g 
10.0g 
Sodium Sulfite 
100.0g 
100.0g 
100.0g 
Sodium Bisulfite(Kodalk)
 
15.0g 
20.0g 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 
1.0L 
1.0L 
Dissolve in order given.
Suggested23 15 – 19 min.@68Â°F
SuggestedK25 35 min.@68Â°F }}{{ 18 min.@77Â°F
Replenish at 1oz. per roll for the first 50 rolls; 3/4oz. per roll for the second 50 rolls then discard and replace.
index
Stock Solution A 
Water (125Â°F) 
500ml 
Sodium Sulfite 
6.3g 
Hydroquinone 
7.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
3.5g 
Citric Acid 
0.7g 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 


Stock Solution B 
Cold water 
1.0L 
Sodium Carbonate 
30.0g 
Sodium Hydroxide 
4.2g 
Dissolve in order given.
To use: 1 part A – 1 part B : 5 min.@68Â°F
For still warmer tone use 1 part A – 2 parts B
((This looks like it would work as a warmtone paper developer))
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DK50 
DK50R 
Water (125Â°) 
500ml 
750ml 
Elon (metol) 
2.5g 
5.0g 
Sodium Sulfite 
30.0g 
30.0g 
Hydroquinone 
2.5g 
10.0g 
Kodalk 
10.0g 
40.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
0.5g 

Water to make 
1.0L 
1.0L 
Dissolve in order given.
Suggested: 4 – 6 min.@68Â°F in trays
8 min.@68Â°F in tanks
8 min.@68Â°F in tanks at 1 1 for portraits
Replenish at a rate of 3/4oz per roll developed (80 Sq. In.).
index
Water (125Â°) 
750ml 
Sodium Sulfite 
24.0g 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 
Amidol 

(Diaminophenol hydrochloride) 
7.5 
No time/temp suggestion was made, this was part of a bleach & redevelopment stain removal process. It is a nonstaining developer.
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DK60a 
DK60TR 
Water (125Â°F) 
750ml 
750ml 
Elon (metol) 
2.5g 
5.0g 
Sodium Sulfite 
50.0g 
50.0g 
Hydroquinone 
2.5g 
10.0g 
Kodalk 
20.0g 
40.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
0.5g 

Water to make 
1.0L 
1.0L 
Dissolve in order given.
Suggested: deep tank = 7 min.@68Â°F
Replenish at 3/4oz. per roll developed (80sq. In.) approx. 8 gal per 1000 rolls.
index

D61A 
D61R 
Solution A 
Water (125Â°F) 
500ml 
3.0L 
Elon (metol) 
3.1g 
5.0g 
Sodium Sulfite 
90.0g 
180.0g 
Sodium Bisulfite 
2.1g 
3.8g 
Hydroquinone 
5.9g 
11.9g 
Sodium Carbonate 
11.5g 

Potassium Bromide 
1.7g 
3.1g 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 
6.0L 

Solution B 
Sodium Carbonate 

240.0g 
Water to make 

2.0L 
Dissolve in order given.
tray: mix 1 – 1 with water; 6 min. @68Â°F
tank: mix 1 – 3 with water; 12 min.@68Â°F
Replenisher = mix 3 parts A and 1 part B and add as needed. Do not mix until ready to use.
index
Water (125Â°F) 
500ml 
Elon (metol) 
3.1g 
Sodium Sulfite 
45.0g 
Hydroquinone 
12.0g 
Sodium Carbonate 
67.5g 
Potassium Bromide 
1.9g 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 
Dissolve in order given.
See materials for dilution and times.
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D76 
D76R 
D76b 
D76d 
D76dr 
D76h 
D76x 
D103 
Water (125Â°F) 
750ml 
750ml 
750ml 
750ml 
750ml 
750ml 
750ml 
750ml 
Metol 
2.0g 
3.0g 
2.75g 
2.0g 
2.2g 
2.5g 
2.0g 
2.0g 
Hydroquinone 
5.0g 
7.5g 
2.75g 
5.0g 
5.4g 

5.0 
5.0g 
Sodium Sulfite 
100g 
100g 
100g 
100g 
100g 
100g 
100g 
100g 
Borax 
2.0g 
20.0g 
2.5g 
8.0g 
10.0g 
2.0g 
2.0g 
1.0g 
Boric acid 



8.0g 
6.7g 

15.0g 
15.0g 
Potassium Bromide 







0.125g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
1.0L 
1.0L 
1.0L 
1.0L 
1.0L 
1.0L 
1.0L 
Dissolve in order given.
See materials for dilution and times.
D76 is the original, D76R is the replenisher, D76 b,d,h,x are buffered versions.D76dr is the replenisher for D76d.
((You can also add 0.5g potassium bromide to reduce base fog and improve shadow detail.))
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Water (125Â°F) 
750ml 
Wood Alcohol 
48.0ml 
Elon (metol) 
14.0g 
Sodium Sulfite 
52.5g 
Hydroquinone 
14.0g 
Sodium Hydroxide 
8.8g 
Potassium Bromide 
8.8g 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 
Dissolve in order given.
Suggested: 5 min. @68Â°F
“The prepared developer does not kept more than a few days in a full stopped bottle or about 2 hours in an open tray.”
index
Stock Solution A 
Water 
750ml 
Sodium sulfite 
180g 
Pyro 
30g 
Water to make 
1.0L 


Stock Solution B 
Sodium Carbonate 
120g 
Potassium Bromide 
3.8g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Dissolve chemicals in order given.
To use mix 1 part A, 1 part B, and 4 parts water.
Suggested 56 min @ 65Â°F.
index
Water (90Â°F) 
500ml 
Sodium Sulfite 
30.0g 
Paraformaldehyde 
7.5g 
Sodium Bisulfite 
2.2g 
Boric acid crystals 
7.5g 
Hydroquinone 
22.5g 
Potassium Bromide 
1.6g 
Cold water to make 
1.0L 
Use crystalline boric acid, powdered is NOT suggested.
“Mixing directions:
Use a 1 gallon narrow mouthed bottle for mixing the developer. First check the volume of the bottle and mark it to indicate the exact level of 1 gallon of solution. Fill the bottle half full of water at about 90Â°F and dissolve the chemicals in the order given. After adding each chemical, place the stopper in the bottle so that only a small quantity of air is present during agitation. When all the chemicals have been dissolved, add cold water until the solution comes up to the 1 gallon mark. Insert the stopper tightly to exclude as much air as possible. Allow the developer to stand about 2 hours after mixing. Cool to 68Â°F before use. If only a portion of the contents of the bottle is used at one time, it is suggested that the balance be saved by filling a bottle of smaller size which should then be stopped tightly.”
((Try Agfa 81 Lith developer.))
index
Metol 
3.0g 
Sodium Sulfite 
100.0g 
Borax 
5.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
0.5g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
((Found and copied from web, no time/temp given. Looks much like DK25 fine grain.))
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Water(125Â°F) 
500ml 
Kodelon 
5.0g 
Sodium Sulfite 
30.0g 
Hydroquinone 
2.5g 
Kodalk 
20.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
0.5g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Suggested:
film: 9 min. @68*F
plates: 6 min. @68*F
paper: 2 min. @ 68*F
“For warm tone papers, use without dilution and develop for 2 min.@68Â°F. For colder tones, double the quantity of Kodalk; use without dilution and develop 1 to 2 min.@68Â°F. In either case, the tones given with this developer are slightly warmer than the normal tones given with Kodak developers D52 and D72.
“The use of Kodak DK93 is especially recommended for those persons subject to trouble from skin irritation.”
index

D96 
D96R 
Metol 
1.5g 
2.0g 
Sodium Sulfite 
75.0g 
80.0g 
Hydroquinone 
1.5g 
2.0g 
Borax 
4.5g 
5.0g 
Potassium bromide 
0.4g 

Water to make 
1.0L 
1.0L 
((Found and copied from web, no time/temp given. Looks almost like DK50, DK60. Will need longer time then D76. Will need to try this one out!!!))
index
Water(125Â°F) 
750ml 
Metol 
8.0g 
Sodium sulfite 
125.0g 
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 
5.75g 
Potassium Bromide 
2.5g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Suggested: 8 to 12 min.@65Â°F
index

Agfa 17 
Agfa 17A 
Water(125Â°F) 
750ml 
750ml 
Metol 
1.5g 
2.2g 
Sodium Sulfite 
80.0g 
80.0g 
Hydroquinone 
3.0g 
4.5g 
Borax 
3.0g 
18.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
0.5g 

Water to make 
1.0L 
1.0L 
Suggested: 10 15 min.@68Â°F
Add 1/2 to 3/4 oz. replenisher per roll, maintain original volume by discarding used developer. No change in time / temp.
index

Agfa 17M 
Agfa 17MR 
Water(125Â°F) 
750ml 
750ml 
Metol 
1.5g 
2.2g 
Sodium Sulfite 
80.0g 
80.0g 
Hydroquinone 
3.0g 
4.5g 
Sodium Metaborate 
2.0g 
8.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
0.5g 

Water to make 
1.0L 
1.0L 
Suggested: 10 15 min.@68Â°F
Add 1/2 to 3/4 oz. replenisher per roll, maintain original volume by discarding used developer. No change in time / temp.
index
Water(125Â°F) 
750ml 
Metol 
2.0g 
Sodium Sulfite 
25.0g 
Hydroquinone 
4.0g 
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 
18.5g 
Potassium Bromide 
2.0g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Suggested: 3 to 4 min.@68Â°F
index
Agfa 22 MQ High Contrast Positive
Water(125Â°F) 
750ml 
Metol 
0.8g 
Sodium Sulfite 
40.0g 
Hydroquinone 
8.0g 
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 
50.0g 
Potassium bromide 
5.0g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Suggested: 5 to 8 min.@68Â°F
index
Water(125Â°F) 
750ml 
Metol 
3.5g 
Sodium Sulfite 
60.0g 
Hydroquinone 
9.0g 
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 
40.0g 
Potassium bromide 
2.0g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Suggested: 4 to 15 min.@68Â°F
index
Water(125Â°F) 
900ml 
Metol 
4.5g 
Sodium Sulfite 
54.0g 
Hydroquinone 
7.5g 
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 
54.0g 
Potassium bromide 
3.0g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Suggested: dilute 1 part agfa 40 to 2 parts water.
4 to 5 min.@68Â°F
“This is a brilliant MetolHydroquinone tray developer for roll, pack and sheet film.”
index
Water(125Â°F) 
750ml 
Metol 
0.8g 
Sodium Sulfite 
45.0g 
Hydroquinone 
1.2g 
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 
8.0g 
Potassium Metabisulfite 
4.0g 
Potassium bromide 
1.5g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Suggested: 15 to 20 min.@68Â°F
“This is a softworking tank formula recommended for pack, roll and portrait films.”
index
Solution 1 
Sodium Bisulfphite 
9.8g 
Pyro 
60.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
1.1g 
water to make 
1.0L 
Solution 2 
Sodium sulfite 
105.0g 
water to make 
1.0L 
Solution 3 
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 
85.0g 
Water to make 
1.0L 
Suggested:
Tray: 1 part each 1,2,3 and 7 parts water; 6 to 8 min.@68°F
Tank: 1 part each 1,2,3 and 11 parts water; 9 to 12 min.@68°F
“Solutions will keep well when stored separately but final developer
should be used immediately after mixing.”
index

Agfa 47 
Agfa 47A 
Water(125°F) 
750ml 
750ml 
Metol 
1.5g 
3.0g 
Sodium sulfite 
45g 
45g 
Sodium Bisulfite 
1.0g 
2.0g 
Hydroquinone 
3.0g 
6.0g 
Sodium Carbonate(mono) 
6.0g 
12.0g 
Potassium Bromide 
0.8g 

Water to make 
1.0L 
1.0L 
Suggested: full strength 57 min @ 65°F
1 – 1 = 12 – 16 min @ 65°F
“This is a longlife, cleanworking formula which will give excellent
results as a standard film developer for either tray or tank
development.”
Suggested: add 1/2 to 3/4 oz. replenisher per roll, maintain original
volume by discarding used developer. No change in time / temp.
index

Agfa 48M 
Agfa 48MR 
Water(125°F) 
750ml 
750ml 
Metol 
2.0g 
6.3g 
Sodium sulfite 
40.0g 
30.0g 
Hydroquinone 
1.5g 
10.0g 
Sodium Metaborate 
10.0 
40.0 
Potassium Bromide 
0.5g 

Water to make 
1.0L 
1.0L 
Suggested:
Tank: 5 to 7 min.@68°F
Tray: 4 to 6 min